ASTHMA

(KUKA, DEBINO, BANYAN)

KUKA

1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF EACH PLANT COMPONENT CONTAINED IN THE PRODUCT

A. Scientific Name with Authority and photograph

ANSWER: Adansonia digitata.

Authority

ANSWER: Michel Adanson; Adansonia digitata L

Photograph

ANSWER:

B. Synonyms

ANSWER

  • Adansonia bahobab L.
  • Adansonia baobab Gaertn.
  • Adansonia integrifolia Raf.
  • Adansonia scutula Steud. Syno
  • Adansonia situla (Lour.) Spreng.
  • Adansonia somalensis Chiov.
  • Adansonia sphaerocarpa A.Chev.
  • Adansonia sulcata A.Chev.
  • Baobabus digitata (L.) Kuntze
  • Ophelus sitularius Lour.

Synonyms: Adansonia bahobab L. (synonym), Adansonia baobab Gaert. (synonym), A. digitata var. congolensis A. Chev. (synonym), Adansonia somalensis Chiov. (synonym), Adansonia sphaerocarpa A. Chevall. (synonym), Adansonia sulcata A. Chevalier (synonym), Baobabus digitata Kuntze (synonym)[18].

C. Family

ANSWER: Malvaceae

D. Vernacular Names/Local Names: (Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba)

ANSWER: Kuka

E. Common Names:

ANSWER: Baobab,  monkey-bread tree, upside-down tree,  cream of tartar tree, “magic tree”, “chemist tree”, “symbol of the earth”, “upside-down tree” and “monkey bread of Africa”

F: Geographical distribution

ANSWER: The African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) is an emblematic, culturally important, and physically huge tropical tree species whose natural geographical distribution comprises most of tropical Africa, but also small patches of southern Arabia, and several Atlantic and Indian Ocean islands surrounding the African continent, notably including Madagascar.

*Widespread in Africa

G: Harvesting and handling of herbal medicinal raw materials

ANSWER: by drying, grinding the seed and fusing the seed together.

H: Botanical Description.

ANSWERAdansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae) is commonly known as baobab tree native to Africa. Baobab is a multi-purpose tree which offers protection and provides food, clothing and medicine as well as raw material for many useful items. The fruit pulp, seeds, leaves, flowers, roots, and bark of baobab are edible and they have been studied by scientists for their useful properties. The fruit pulp have very high vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, carbohydrates, fibers, potassium, proteins and lipids content, which can be used in seasoning as an appetizer and also make juices. Seeds contain appreciable quantities of phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, sodium, iron, manganese, whereas they have high levels of lysine, thiamine, calcium and iron. Baobab has numerous biological properties including antimicrobial, anti-malarial, diarrhoea, anaemia, asthma, antiviral, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities amongst others. Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of flavonoidsphytosterols, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. The review summarizes the information on various aspects of traditional information, taxonomic description, medicinal properties and importantly nutritional value.

I. Plant parts used

ANSWER: Leaves, Seeds, Stem bark, Powdered seeds, Fruits

J. Official Plant Substitute (if any)

ANSWER: None

2. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND RECORD OF USE OF THE PLANT OR POLYHERBAL (IF MORE THAN ONE PLANT)

a. Chemical Constituents (Literature)

ANSWER: 

Constituent (%)
Total soluble solids 79.3
Alcohol soluble solids 57.3
Total sugars 23.2
Reducing sugars 18.9
Total pectin 56.2
Total starch 0
Proteins (%Nx6.25) 2.6
Fat 0.2
Fibre 5.7
Ash 5.3

Analysis of baobab fruit pulp (mg/100 g)[34].

ConstituentContent (mg/100g)
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)280.00-300.00**
Calcium293.00**
Phosphorus96.00-118.00
Carbohydrates75.60
Soluble and insoluble dietary fibers52.00
Potassium2.31
Protein2.30
Lipids0.27
**

: Ascorbic acid compared with oranges of 51 mg/100 g and calcium compared with milk of 125 mg/100 g[35].

 

Mineral contents of A. digitata seeds (μ/g dry weight).

MineralContent (μ/g dry weight)
Phosphorus6 140.0
Calcium3 950.0
Magnesium3 520.0
Zinc25.7
Sodium19.6
Iron18.3
Manganese10.6

Significant potassium and measurable copper were recorded by Arnold et al. (1985) and potassium by Odetokun (1996)[404455].

b. Herbarium Specimen

c. *Major Uses

ANSWER: Asthma

d.*Other Uses

ANSWER: Diarrhoea, fever, inflammation, kidney and bladder diseases, blood clearing,

e. *Claims Verification (Testimonials, Anecdotal)

ANSWER:

3. IDENTIFICATION (PHYTOCHEMISTRY) AND STANDARDIZATION OF HERBAL MEDICINAL PRODUCT

a. Organoleptic Properties

b. Fourier Transform Infra-red Identification of plant (powder or liquid)

c. Macroscopic Description

d. Microscopic Description

e. Moisture Content

f. Extraction Method

g. Thin Layer Chromatography (Literature or Lab Acquired)

4. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

a. In Vitro Experiments (Literature or Experimental Record)

b. In Vivo Animal Experiments (Literature or Experimental Record)

5. SAFETY DATA OF EACH PLANT COMPONENT IN THE PRODUCT

a. Traditional Use Safety Records

b. Acute Toxicity Literature (or Pass Down History)

c. Sub-chronic and Chronic Toxicity (Literature or Otherwise)

d. Reproductive Toxicity (Literature if any)

e. Mutagenic Potentials (literature if any)

f. Carcinogenic Potentials (literature if any)

* 6. FORMULATION

g. Formula and Ingredients (Plant and Excipients/Non-active Ingredients and Properties Organoleptic Properties Fourier Transform Infra-red Identification of plant (powder or liquid) Macroscopic and Microscopic Description Moisture Content

ANSWER:

h. Method of Preparation/ Manufacturing Process

ANSWER:

*7. LABELLING INFORMATION (PACKAGE INSERT/ LEAFLET)

i. Dosage and Frequency of Administration= The dosage regimen is the frequency at which the drug doses are given. Examples include 2.5 mL twice a day, one tablet three times a day, one injection every four weeks.

The total daily dose is calculated from the dose and the number of times per day the dose is taken.

The dosage form is the physical form of a dose of drug. Common dosage forms include tablets, capsules, creams, ointments, aerosols and patches. Each dosage form may also have a number of specialized forms such as extended-release, buccal, dispersible and chewable tablets. The strength is the amount of drug in the dosage form or a unit of the dosage form (e.g. 500 mg capsule, 250 mg/5 mL suspension).

ANSWER:

j. Route of Administration

ANSWER: Oral route; administered orally as liquids; Taken by mouth (orally)

k. Contraindications= A contraindication is a specific situation in which a drug, procedure, or surgery should not be used because it may be harmful to the person. There are two types of contraindications:

  • Relative contraindication means that caution should be used when two drugs or procedures are used together. (It is acceptable to do so if the benefits outweigh the risk.)
  • Absolute contraindication means that event or substance could cause a life-threatening situation. A procedure or medicine that falls under this category must be avoided.

Some treatments may cause unwanted or dangerous reactions in people with allergies, high blood pressure, or pregnancy. For example, isotretinoin, a drug used to treat acne is absolutely contraindicated in pregnancy due to the risk of birth defects. Certain decongestants are contraindicated in people with high blood pressure and should be avoided.

Many medicines should not be used together by the same person. For instance, a person who takes warfarin to thin the blood should not take aspirin, which is also a blood thinner. This is an example of a relative contraindication.

ANSWER:

l. Side Effects and Adverse Effects

ANSWER: No Side Effects and No Adverse Effects

m. Pregnancy and Lactation (Statement of exclusion)

ANSWER:

n. Overdose and Antidote (if any)

ANSWER:

o. Drug-Herb Interaction (Record if any)=Important caveats are noted in each table. A third group of supplements contains herbs that have shown a low risk of interaction with some drugs and a moderate or high risk of interaction with other drugs

ANSWER:NONE

p. Children below 12 years (Statement of exclusion)- Except formulation meant for children

ANSWER:

q. Storage condition

ANSWER: Store in a cool dry place

8. HERBAL MEDICINE VIGILANCE (SAFETY MONITORING – LITERATURE IF ANY)

9. CLINICAL SAFETY DATA (QUOTED LITERATURE)

DEBINO

A. Scientific Name with Authority and photograph

ANSWER: Phoenix dactylifera

Authority:

ANSWER:

Photograph:

ANSWER

B. Synonyms

ANSWERPalma dactylifera (L.) Mill. 2. Phoenix chevalieri D.Rivera, S.Ríos & Obón, 3. Phoenix iberica D.Rivera, S.Ríos & Obón

 

C. Family: 

ANSWER: Arecaceae

D. Vernacular Names/Local Names: (Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba)

ANSWERDabino

E. Common Names:

ANSWER:  date or date palm

F: Geographical distribution.

ANSWERPhoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm,[2] is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its exact place of origin is uncertain because of long cultivation, it probably originated from the Fertile Crescent region straddling between Egypt and Mesopotamia.[3] The species is widely cultivated across Northern Africa, the Middle East, the Horn of Africa and South Asia, and is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions worldwide.[4][5][6] P. dactylifera is the type species of genus Phoenix, which contains 12–19 species of wild date palms, and is the major source of commercial production.

G: Harvesting and handling of herbal medicinal raw materials

ANSWER: Decoction, by grinding the seed.

H: Botanical Description.

ANSWER:  Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm,[2] is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its exact place of origin is uncertain because of long cultivation, it probably originated from the Fertile Crescent region straddling between Egypt and Mesopotamia.[3] The species is widely cultivated across Northern Africa, the Middle East, the Horn of Africa and South Asia, and is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions worldwide.[4][5][6] P. dactylifera is the type species of genus Phoenix, which contains 12–19 species of wild date palms, and is the major source of commercial production.[3]

Date trees typically reach about 21–23 metres (69–75 ft) in height,[7] growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. Date fruits (dates) are oval-cylindrical, 3 to 7 centimetres (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, and about 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) in diameter, ranging from bright red to bright yellow in colour, depending on variety. At about 61-68 percent sugar by mass when dried, dates are a very sweet fruit [8].

Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in Arabia from the 6th millennium BCE. The total annual world production of dates amounts to 8.5 million metric tons, countries of the Middle East and North Africa being the largest producers.[9]

I. Plant parts used

ANSWER: Leaves

J. Official Plant Substitute (if any)

ANSWER: None

2. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND RECORD OF USE OF THE PLANT OR POLYHERBAL (IF MORE THAN ONE PLANT)

a. Chemical Constituents (Literature)

b. Herbarium Specimen

c. *Major Uses

d.*Other Uses

e. *Claims Verification (Testimonials, Anecdotal)

3. IDENTIFICATION (PHYTOCHEMISTRY) AND STANDARDIZATION OF HERBAL MEDICINAL PRODUCT

a. Organoleptic Properties

b. Fourier Transform Infra-red Identification of plant (powder or liquid)

c. Macroscopic Description

d. Microscopic Description

e. Moisture Content

f. Extraction Method

g. Thin Layer Chromatography (Literature or Lab Acquired)

4. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

a. In Vitro Experiments (Literature or Experimental Record)

b. In Vivo Animal Experiments (Literature or Experimental Record)

5. SAFETY DATA OF EACH PLANT COMPONENT IN THE PRODUCT

a. Traditional Use Safety Records

b. Acute Toxicity Literature (or Pass Down History)

c. Sub-chronic and Chronic Toxicity (Literature or Otherwise)

d. Reproductive Toxicity (Literature if any)

e. Mutagenic Potentials (literature if any)

f. Carcinogenic Potentials (literature if any)

* 6. FORMULATION

g. Formula and Ingredients (Plant and Excipients/Non-active Ingredients and Properties Organoleptic Properties Fourier Transform Infra-red Identification of plant (powder or liquid) Macroscopic and Microscopic Description Moisture Content

h. Method of Preparation/ Manufacturing Process

*7. LABELLING INFORMATION (PACKAGE INSERT/ LEAFLET)

i. Dosage and Frequency of Administration

j. Route of Administration

k. Contraindications

l. Side Effects and Adverse Effects

m. Pregnancy and Lactation (Statement of exclusion)

n. Overdose and Antidote (if any)

o. Drug-Herb Interaction (Record if any)

p. Children below 12 years (Statement of exclusion)- Except formulation meant for children

q. Storage condition

8. HERBAL MEDICINE VIGILANCE (SAFETY MONITORING – LITERATURE IF ANY)

9. CLINICAL SAFETY DATA (QUOTED LITERATURE)

BANYAN

A. Scientific Name with Authority and photograph

ANSWER: Ficus benghalensis

Authority:

ANSWER:

Photograph:

ANSWER

B. Synonyms

ANSWER

C. Family:

ANSWER:  Moraceae

D. Vernacular Names/Local Names: (Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba)

ANSWER: banyan itace

E. Common Names:

ANSWER:  banyanbanyan fig and Indian banyan; Indian banyan or banyan fig

F: Geographical distribution.

ANSWER: Banyan, (Ficus benghalensis), also called Indian banyan or banyan fig, unusually shaped tree of the mulberry family (Moraceae) native to the Indian subcontinent. The banyan reaches a height up to 30 metres (100 feet) and spreads laterally indefinitely. Aerial roots that develop from its branches descend and take root in the soil to become new trunks. One tree may in time assume the appearance of a very dense thicket as a result of the tangle of roots and trunks. One individual, known as Thimmamma Marrimanu, in Andhra Pradesh, India, is thought to have the broadest canopy of any tree in the world. The banyan is the national tree of India.

G: Harvesting and handling of herbal medicinal raw materials

ANSWER: Decoction, by grinding the seed.

H: Botanical Description.

ANSWER: Banyan, (Ficus benghalensis), also called Indian banyan or banyan fig, unusually shaped tree of the mulberry family (Moraceae) native to the Indian subcontinent. The banyan reaches a height up to 30 metres (100 feet) and spreads laterally indefinitely. Aerial roots that develop from its branches descend and take root in the soil to become new trunks. One tree may in time assume the appearance of a very dense thicket as a result of the tangle of roots and trunks. One individual, known as Thimmamma Marrimanu, in Andhra Pradesh, India, is thought to have the broadest canopy of any tree in the world. The banyan is the national tree of India.

I. Plant parts used

ANSWER: Leaves

J. Official Plant Substitute (if any)

ANSWER: None

2. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND RECORD OF USE OF THE PLANT OR POLYHERBAL (IF MORE THAN ONE PLANT)

a. Chemical Constituents (Literature)

b. Herbarium Specimen

c. *Major Uses

ANSWER

d.*Other Uses

ANSWER:

e. *Claims Verification (Testimonials, Anecdotal)

ANSWER:

3. IDENTIFICATION (PHYTOCHEMISTRY) AND STANDARDIZATION OF HERBAL MEDICINAL PRODUCT

a. Organoleptic Properties

b. Fourier Transform Infra-red Identification of plant (powder or liquid)

c. Macroscopic Description

d. Microscopic Description

e. Moisture Content

f. Extraction Method

g. Thin Layer Chromatography (Literature or Lab Acquired)

4. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

a. In Vitro Experiments (Literature or Experimental Record)

b. In Vivo Animal Experiments (Literature or Experimental Record)

5. SAFETY DATA OF EACH PLANT COMPONENT IN THE PRODUCT

a. Traditional Use Safety Records

b. Acute Toxicity Literature (or Pass Down History)

c. Sub-chronic and Chronic Toxicity (Literature or Otherwise)

d. Reproductive Toxicity (Literature if any)

e. Mutagenic Potentials (literature if any)

f. Carcinogenic Potentials (literature if any)

* 6. FORMULATION

g. Formula and Ingredients (Plant and Excipients/Non-active Ingredients and Properties Organoleptic Properties Fourier Transform Infra-red Identification of plant (powder or liquid) Macroscopic and Microscopic Description Moisture Content

ANSWER:

h. Method of Preparation/ Manufacturing Process

ANSWER:

*7. LABELLING INFORMATION (PACKAGE INSERT/ LEAFLET)

i. Dosage and Frequency of Administration

ANSWER:

j. Route of Administration

ANSWER:

k. Contraindications

ANSWER:

l. Side Effects and Adverse Effects

ANSWER:

m. Pregnancy and Lactation (Statement of exclusion)

ANSWER:

n. Overdose and Antidote (if any)

ANSWER:

o. Drug-Herb Interaction (Record if any)

ANSWER:

p. Children below 12 years (Statement of exclusion)- Except formulation meant for children

ANSWER:

q. Storage condition

ANSWER:

8. HERBAL MEDICINE VIGILANCE (SAFETY MONITORING – LITERATURE IF ANY)

9. CLINICAL SAFETY DATA (QUOTED LITERATURE)

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